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Kennedy Wilson Expands Idaho Portfolio

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The Lofts At Ten Mile. Image courtesy of Kennedy Wilson

Kennedy Wilson has expanded its Boise, Idaho, multifamily portfolio with the acquisitions of three properties in the region totaling 640 units for $143 million, and an Opportunity Zone development site where 240 units can be built.

The three properties in the separate off-market transactions include one wholly owned asset, The Lofts at Ten Mile, a 240-unit apartment community in Meridian, Idaho. The other two assets, Jasper Apartments, a 240-unit property also in Meridian, and Towne Square, a 160-unit property in Boise, were purchased with Boise-based real estate investment company Roundhouse.

Kennedy Wilson and Roundhouse also acquired the Dovetail development site, an Opportunity Zone parcel in Meridian entitled for 240 units. The Dovetail development, which will cater to residents seeking a suburban, outdoor-oriented lifestyle with an emphasis on sustainability, is expected to be completed in 2023. The development will cost an estimated $60 million to construct, including approximately $19 million in equity committed by Kennedy Wilson over the life of the development.

Kennedy Wilson has an average ownership of 95 percent in the four investments. The company has invested $68 million of equity into the properties using either fixed-rate financing or floating-rate financing hedged against long-term increases in interest rates. Kennedy Wilson plans to add and enhance amenities and update unit interiors in the existing properties.

Mountain State Moves

Kennedy Wilson has been investing in the Mountain States region since 2012. Including those under development, the company now owns about 2,500 market-rate apartments in the Boise region, making it the largest owner of conventional multifamily property in the Boise metro.

All properties were either developed through a build-to-hold business plan or secured through off-market transactions from private sellers. The purchases also reflect Kennedy Wilson’s continued focus on recycling equity capital from dispositions into high-quality multifamily properties throughout the Mountain States.

The company and partner Roundhouse recently completed construction of The Clara, a 277-unit multifamily development in Eagle, Idaho. The property is nearing full lease-up months of ahead of the business plan, according to Kennedy Wilson.

Nick Bridges, managing director at Kennedy Wilson who oversees multifamily investments in the region, said in a prepared statement they expect continued growth in population and employment as both individuals and employers seek relative housing affordability, lower taxes, a friendlier business environment, better infrastructure and access to the outdoors.

Bridges said those trends, which had existed prior to the pandemic, were accelerated during the COVID-19 crisis as both Baby Boomers and Millennials sought a higher quality of life in the Mountain States.

In November, Kennedy Wilson acquired two multifamily properties in Colorado and one in Arizona totaling 880 units for $198 million. The apartment communities are Rockrimmon, a 260-unit property in Colorado Springs, Colo.; RockVue, a 220-unit Broomfield, Colo., property; and Tempe Station, a 400-unit property in Tempe, Ariz.

Rockrimmon is wholly owned by Kennedy Wilson and the other two are being held in the company’s co-investment portfolio with Kennedy Wilson holding an average ownership of 10 percent across the two assets.

Kennedy Wilson now owns more than 10,000 units in the Mountain States.

Trails become friendlier for users with disabilities  

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LANSING — At some point in our lives, we all can use a little help down the trail — aging baby boomers, a toddler, a parent pushing a stroller, an expectant mother, somebody who walks with a cane, somebody else who suffers from asthma.

The days of covering 20 miles with a 30-pound pack on our back might be a thing of the past, but not the desire to spend an afternoon in the woods seeing where this winding footpath takes us.

That’s why what use to be “handicap accessible” is now “universal access” with organizations like the Grand Traverse Regional Land Conservancy pursuing a goal to preserve the outdoors for everybody.


“For a variety of reasons, many people in our community simply aren’t able to go on the hikes or enjoy the outdoor experiences that so many of us take for granted,” conservancy Executive Director Glen Chown said.

“Everyone deserves access to nature, and we’re thrilled to offer universally accessible ways to enjoy some of our region’s best natural attractions,” Chown said.

Universal access was one of the major goals of the conservancy’s Campaign for Generations, a $71.4-million, six-year fund-raising effort that will end on June 30.

But one result of the campaign can already be enjoyed along the M-22 corridor: two of Michigan’s most amazing universally accessible trails, scenic paths that were designed for people with disabilities in mind, but benefit everybody.

OVERLOOK TRAIL

Standing on the sandy edge of a perched dune with Lake Michigan spread out beneath you is one of the most cherished experiences along the lake’s Gold Coast. But such scenic spots usually require a hike or even a short walk through the woods, making them off-limits to anybody with physical limitations or even just age — too young or too old.

That was until 2017 when the conservancy unveiled the Overlook Trail in Benzie County.

It’s part of the sprawling, 3,800-acre Arcadia Dunes/C.S. Mott Nature Preserve, and conservancy officials say the trail is the first universally accessible path to a shoreline dune overlook on Lake Michigan.

The half-mile Overlook is part of the preserve’s Baldy Trail system but was a significant upgrade of the existing route.

The new trail features a 6-foot-wide surface of compacted crushed stone and a massive boardwalk. The boardwalk uses switchbacks to gently climb 60 feet through a backdune forest of predominately sugar maples that make it a colorful setting in the fall.

You end at an observation deck perched more than 300 feet above Lake Michigan. The Overlook features several benches, including two rocking benches, along with interpretive displays and a view to the north that encompasses Betsie Bay from Frankfort harbor to Point Betsie.

ARCADIA MARSH NATURE PRESERVE

In the late 1800s, a railroad grade was constructed through Arcadia Marsh in Manistee County, and in the 1950s, the water level was lowered to improve its agricultural potential.

A half-century later, when the conservancy acquired 155 acres of it, Arcadia was a sad remnant of the Great Lakes coastal marsh it once was.

The conservancy coordinated a massive restoration project that focused on returning Bowens Creek to its natural channel through the marsh and creating 6 acres of shallow, open water to benefit migrating birds and spawning northern pike.

In 2019, the conservancy converted a former railroad bed into a universally accessible path that includes 0.75 miles of boardwalk across the middle of the swamp.

Today, the 313-acre nature preserve is a popular destination, especially during spring and fall migrations. he impressive $1.5-million walkway offers easy hiking and excellent birding with benches, observation platforms, interpretive displays and small fishing platforms along Bowen’s Creek.

KETTLES TRAIL

The National Park Service is also focused on universal access in this corner of Michigan.

The newest footpath in Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore is Kettles Trail in the heart of Leelanau County, away from the towering dunes and Lake Michigan shoreline that the park is famous for.

Dedicated in 2019, the 3.4-mile trail loops through an intriguing and rugged area of numerous kettles surrounded by a jumbled array of ridges and marshy potholes.

But the first 1,000 feet of the trail is a fully accessible path with a compacted stone surface that leads to an overlook of a steep-sided kettle.

This leg of the new trail is level. The remainder uses old two-tracks that climb the slopes and ridges, some with a more than 20 percent grade.

Jim DuFresne is a MSU Journalism School alumnus and the author of The Trails of M-22 (MichiganTrailMaps.com).

The New Trend Of Wanderlust, Work-From-Anywhere Digital Nomads

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One of the most exciting things to come out of the pandemic is that companies accepted the fact that they need to listen to their employees and cater to their needs, especially as there’s a war for talent happening. The hybrid work model looks like it will be the new standard. Workers will be in the office two to three days a week and work remotely the rest of the time. There are now other new, different, fun and exciting ways to work. 

During the outbreak, there’s been a fast-emerging trend of workers taking residence in other countries, as a digital nomad. People have taken to doing their jobs at the beach or near ski slopes. Some decided to relocate to lower-cost locations within the United States to save money—while still receiving the same pay. Adventurous types traveled to other countries.  

BlueGround Nomads

To capitalize on this new and exciting trend, Blueground, a proptech company, is reinventing the way people live and work with its new program—Blueground Nomads. The startup offers around 4,000 fully furnished apartments in 15 cities around the world. You could sign up for an apartment wherever and whenever you want. 

The company is courting people who want to explore and experience new adventures. You could have an extended stay in an apartment for a month or longer. It could be in New York, London, Paris, Athens or Vienna. As opposed to Airbnb, where you rent a person’s home, Blueground offers corporate apartments to ensure consistency and safety. The company provides a ready-to-move-in apartment, along with the tools needed to work remotely. 

Alex Chatzieleftheriou, the cofounder and CEO of Blueground, said about the program, “Flexibility, exploration and the freedom to choose how and where you spend your time is the essence of Blueground.” Chatzieleftheriou traveled extensively for work and has lived in “15 cities around the world.” He wants other people to also get “exposed to different geographies and cultures,” as it’s a “unique opportunity.”

The chief executive says living in different places broadens one’s perspective, while helping them develop as a person. Through the Blueground Nomads program, he said, “We’re not only providing max flexibility, but we’re encouraging our team members to choose the best work environment for them. We’re removing obstacles and providing options, opportunities and the tools to experience the world and its cultures.”

The real estate startup is positioning itself as the go-to choice for workers who want to travel or move to a new city. The concept is similar to co-working companies, like WeWork.  

Blueground partners with real estate landlords and executes long-term leases, which in turn are subleased to the nomad workers on a flexible basis. Just as the co-working spaces offer desks, chairs, phones and conference rooms, BlueGround apartments are fully furnished by professional interior designers and equipped with couches, beds, tables, big-screen TVs and other amenities, so people don’t have to worry about anything and can just move right in.

Leaving Big Cities, Going To Different Exotic Places

The work-anywhere-in-the-world or digital-nomad movement will continue to accelerate with remote work becoming commonplace. This trend skews toward white-collar workers. During the pandemic, we’ve seen Wall Street bankers, hedge fund managers, tech titans and others flee big cities, such as New York, for the Hamptons, Palm Beach, Martha’s Vineyard, suburbs of Connecticut and New Jersey or jet off to exotic locations.

Several countries encouraged Americans to migrate there with special visas and open arms. Since tourism was down due to the Covid-19 and their economies hurting, Barbados, Estonia, Bermuda and Georgia opened their doors to Americans, inviting them to come, work, pay taxes and contribute to the economy.

Similarly, Hawaii saw its economy suffer due to a lack of tourism—a large revenue source—and the closures or limited operations of many businesses. In an effort to turn things around, state officials, intent on reviving the lackluster economy, started a program to bring remote workers to the Aloha State. 

Living The RV Lifestyle

The same way people view remote work as gaining back freedom, there’s been a steady growing movement of people traveling the U.S. in their recreational vehicles (RV) for work and pleasure. 

The Escapees RV Club is one of  the largest and most active RVing communities in the world. The group has over 60,000 members, around 100 employees and thousands of volunteers. Many members live in their RV year-round. Some travel non-stop and others may spend some weeks or months in one location before moving on. The group covers all ages including Millennials, Gen-Xers, Baby Boomers and the Greatest Generation.  

A fast-growing number of their members “work full-time or part-time from the road—doing anything from camp-hosting to writing to software development, and everything in between.” The organization says that it’s relatively easy to conduct business remotely in their RV from anywhere they want as   “today’s sophisticated options for mobile internet make it possible to stay connected and work remotely from almost anywhere.”

The people are “United by our shared love of travel and exploration. We like being independent, self-reliant, and, yes, sometimes even a little unconventional. We believe in sharing our knowledge and experience, and caring for our fellow members. And most importantly, we enjoy being part of a community of like-minded folks.”

Lezlie Garr is a career coach and living the “RV lifestyle.” Eschewing houses or apartments, Garr and her partner travel the country in their recreational vehicle. They traverse the U.S., enjoying seeing new sights. Garr is particularly fond of nature. She goes to national parks and visits beautiful scenic locations. 

She’s not alone. Garr says that so many people have adopted the digital nomad path that many parks are overcrowded, forcing her to focus on paths less traveled. It takes a lot of planning. Garr needs to ensure that she has internet and phone connectivity to work with clients seeking out new jobs, needing help with a résumé and improving interviewing techniques. One of the things she enjoys most is the freedom to pursue her passion for traveling, enjoying new experiences, meeting people from all walks of life, while simultaneously successfully helping her clients.

The pandemic brought us a lot of pain, but it also opened our eyes. We no longer need to be shackled to an office eight to ten hours a day, five days a week. As workers are regaining power due to a hot job market, they’re able to demand flexible options. People can now lead their best lives by working the way they want from wherever they desire.

Here’s why it will be harder for many Black families to recover from the pandemic downturn – WRCBtv.com

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One thing that is weighing down older Black millennials, who were born in the 1980s, is student debt. Some 81% of college graduates in this group have student loans, with a median value of $52,000, compared to just over half of older White millennials, whose median balance is $40,000, according to Federal Reserve Bank data.

The coronavirus pandemic wrecked Americans’ retirement savings

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The coronavirus pandemic destroyed retirement plans for millions of Americans, many of whom tapped into savings accounts earlier than expected as the crisis forced an unprecedented shutdown of the nation’s economy. 

While most Americans expect to retire around age 66, a new study published by Real Estate Witch this week found that some 40% of baby boomers had put their retirement plans on hold due to the pandemic. 

About 35% of survey respondents said they tapped their retirement savings in order to make ends meet during the pandemic, spending roughly 44% of what they had squirreled away. Boomers said they spent slightly more, reporting that 46% of their savings had been used during the pandemic.

SOCIAL SECURITY COST-OF-LIVING ADJUSTMENT COULD BE HIGHEST IN 13 YEARS AMID INFLATION SURGE

“Boomers who plan to retire within the next decade face the steep challenge of making up for severe shortfalls in their retirement funds,” the study said. 

The youngest boomer will turn 55 this year, leaving little time to make up the extra retirement cash – especially considering the pandemic forced millions to retire early. A Pew Research study found that 3.2 million more boomers retired in the third quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, likely due to the historically high unemployment rate.

The average American has about $250,813 stashed away for retirement – well below the recommended figure of $465,000. Boomers have an average of $296,064 saved for retirement, 36% below the recommended level.

CONSUMER PRICES SPIKE 5% ANNUALLY, MOST SINCE AUGUST 2008

Respondents who said they spent their retirement fund reported using between $10,000 and $14,999, but close to one in five reported spending more than $25,000 from their retirement savings.

Most Americans also drastically curtailed the amount of money they were contributing to retirement accounts during the pandemic: According to the study, most individuals reduced their contributions by about 3%. But about 66% of respondents said they plan to resume their typical contribution level once the pandemic fully subsides.

“As more members of the United States’ aging population transition into retirement, the nation faces the risk that its elderly population will face financial hardship in their later years — an issue that was exacerbated by the pandemic’s widespread financial strain,” the study said. 

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Still, some Americans actually benefited from the pandemic, which brought vast gyrations to the stock market: Some 2.7 million individuals age 55 or older – most of them affluent and White –  are considering retiring early due to stock-market windfalls, government data shows.

Rent on the Rise

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With home prices hitting record highs, demand for single family rental homes is soaring, and so are rent prices.

Average rent price for single family units was up 5.3% in April when compared to a year earlier.
That marks the largest gain in almost 15 years.

Rent for single family detached homes was up even more, nearly 8%.

Nearly half of millenials surveyed by Corelogic, and 64% of baby boomers, said they “strongly prefer” to live in a single, stand-alone home.

More Voters Than Not Oppose Developer’s Decision to Abandon Keystone XL Pipeline

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For roughly a decade, the proposed Keystone XL pipeline, which would have brought crude oil from the Alberta oil sands in Canada to refineries in the Gulf of Mexico, has been the focus of protest from those arguing that constructing major new fossil fuel infrastructure runs counter to the goal of limiting greenhouse gas emissions. 

But while environmental and Indigenous activists cheered the cancellation of the pipeline project by its Canadian developer last week, new polling from Morning Consult and Politico found that voters were more ambivalent about the decision. 

Thirty-two percent of voters said they support TC Energy Corp.’s decision to abandon the project, while 42 percent said they oppose it. 

Democrats were most strongly in support of TC Energy’s decision (52 percent) while Republicans opposed it in large numbers (69 percent). Republicans were also most likely to take a stance on the subject, with only 18 percent saying they did not know or had no opinion compared to 26 percent of all voters who said the same. 

And the older generations of voters were more likely than their younger counterparts to oppose the project’s cancellation: 51 percent of baby boomers did so, compared with 23 percent of Gen Z voters. (It should be noted that the poll’s margins of error by generation vary from 8 percentage points for Gen Z voters to 4 points for the other groups.)

Meanwhile, 53 percent of voters say the United States should continue to allow the construction of major new fossil fuel infrastructure like pipelines (31 percent “definitely” and 22 percent “probably”), while just 28 percent said the country should stop (13 percent “definitely” and 15 percent “probably”). 

Democrats were most likely to say the projects should definitely or probably be stopped, at just under half (47 percent), while 32 percent said they should be allowed to continue. Republicans responded more decisively, with 55 percent saying the United States should “definitely” continue to allow the projects and 23 percent saying they should “probably” continue to do so.

But a generational divide persists. Nearly half of Gen Z voters — the group that will be living with significant infrastructure decisions the longest — said the country should stop allowing major new fossil fuel projects. In contrast, just 21 percent of Gen X voters said the same.

This comes mere months after half of the country’s voters said climate change is a “critical threat,” a share that has increased steadily in recent years. 

The poll was conducted June 11-13 among 1,994 registered voters, with a 2-point margin of error. 

Nearly 40 Percent of Americans with Annual Incomes over $100,000 Live Paycheck-to-Paycheck

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SAN FRANCISCO, June 15, 2021 /PRNewswire/ — LendingClub Corporation (NYSE: LC), the parent company of LendingClub Bank, America’s leading digital marketplace bank, today released initial findings from its Reality Check: Paycheck-To-Paycheck research series, conducted in partnership with PYMNTS. This inaugural report finds that a majority of Americans (54 percent), including individuals across a broad spectrum of income and age, are living paycheck-to-paycheck.

The key takeaway: The majority of Americans are struggling to pay bills and are not saving enough amid prolonged period of tepid wage growth and rising living costs causing them to live paycheck-to-paycheck.

The Majority of U.S. Consumers Live Paycheck-to-Paycheck

According to the research, 54 percent of consumers in the U.S. (125 million U.S. adults) are living paycheck-to-paycheck, with 21 percent of this population struggling to pay their bills, meaning they have little or no money left over after spending their income.              

While it’s true that those who earn less are more likely to struggle financially, the results across all income brackets are staggering:

  • Nearly 40 percent of those with annual incomes over $100,000 live paycheck-to-paycheck, including 12 percent struggling to pay their bills.
  • Fifty-three percent of those who make between $50,000 and $100,000 annually live paycheck-to-paycheck, with 18 percent struggling to pay their bills.
  • Seventy-two percent of those who make less than $50,000 per year live paycheck-to-paycheck, with 33 percent struggling to pay their bills.

When it comes to demographics, the largest group living paycheck-to-paycheck is millennials (77 percent), especially bridge millennials (those 33 to 42 years old) — with 33 percent struggling to pay their bills. This demographic has been bookended by two recessions and riddled with student debt unlike baby boomers and seniors who are least likely to be living paycheck-to-paycheck. Additionally, the research shows that having children corresponds with a greater likelihood of living paycheck-to-paycheck.

“The perception that only low-income individuals are living paycheck-to-paycheck simply is not the case today,” said Anuj Nayar, Financial Health Officer at LendingClub. “Half of Americans in this country are not building a reserve or saving for retirement. They are on a treadmill daily deciding whether every dollar they make will help them live or weather a financial storm. On top of that, they are financially vulnerable, and, like we’ve seen for so many over the last year, if there is any disruption to their income-level, they won’t have sufficient savings to absorb the hardship.”

Americans’ Modest Savings Cushion Isn’t Enough

Having a savings cushion is an indicator of consumers’ ability to cover large, unexpected purchases or discretionary spending as they arise. Experts recommend saving at least six to eight months of one’s earnings.

According to the research, most Americans have limited savings with 70 percent of consumers having less than $15,000, contributing to the paycheck-to-paycheck problem. Among paycheck-to-paycheck consumers struggling to pay their bills, the average level of savings is significantly less at approximately $4,000.

Government Stimulus Payments Helped Mitigate the Problem    

While the pandemic contributed to incredible job loss across the country, government stimulus checks did help offset the financial impact with many Americans putting these extra funds into savings. The average savings of someone living paycheck-to-paycheck and struggling to pay their bills increased 3x over the past year, from $2,400 in March 2020 to $6,200 in April 2021. Additionally, those living paycheck-to-paycheck and not struggling to pay their bills more than doubled their savings, from $4,700 in March 2020 to $10,100 in April 2021. The research suggests that those living paycheck-to-paycheck over the last year have been financially responsible, curtailing spending and adding money to savings when possible.

”While Government stimulus helped increase savings rates, we need to look beyond any one-time impacts of this money as it may actually mask what’s really happening in America,” continued Nayar. “The average U.S. household income in 2020 was $87,864. On average, an American spends $3,189 a month on expenses while a family of five spends $6,780 monthly1. The reality is that half of Americans in this country are spending as much as they are earning, are not reaching recommended savings levels and will need a lot more than the stimulus payments to do so. As the economy reopens, and spending across the country accelerates, we’ll likely continue to see the savings gap widen.”

To view the full report, visit: https://www.pymnts.com/study/paycheck-to-paycheck-consumer-finances-american-households/.

Methodology

The Paycheck-To-Paycheck Reality Check series is based on a series of census-balanced surveys of 28,635 U.S. consumers conducted between March 17, 2020, and May 3, 2021, as well as an analysis of other economic data. The most recent survey was based on a census-balanced panel of 2,467 consumers.

About LendingClub

LendingClub Corporation (NYSE: LC) is the parent company of LendingClub Bank, National Association, Member FDIC. It is the leading digital marketplace bank in the U.S. Members can gain access to a broad range of financial products and services through a technology-driven platform, designed to help them pay less when borrowing and earn more when saving. Since 2007, more than 3 million members have joined the Club to help reach their financial goals. For more information about LendingClub, visit  https://www.lendingclub.com.

About PYMNTS [pymnts.com]

Boston-based PYMNTS [pymnts.com].com and PYMNTS-TV [pymnts.com] are reinventing how companies in payments share relevant information about the initiatives that shape the future of commerce and makes news. This powerful B2B platform is the #1 site for the payments industry by traffic and the premier source of information about “what’s next” in payments. C-suite and VP level executives turn to it daily for these insights, making the PYMNTS.com audience the most valuable in the industry. It provides an interactive platform for companies to demonstrate thought leadership, popularize products and, most importantly, capture the mindshare of global decision-makers. It’s where the best minds and best content meet on the web. 

LendingClub Contact:

For Investors: [email protected]

Media Contact: [email protected]

PYMNTS Contact: [email protected]

1 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Consumer Expenditure Survey

SOURCE LendingClub Corporation

Related Links

https://www.lendingclub.com

What’s Your Social Media Flavour? – Blogs

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As of 2016, according to Internet Live Stats, approximately 40% of the global population has an internet connection; compared to 1995 it was less than one percent. Moreover, Statista says that “there are more than 2.62 billion social media users around the world and this number is expected to grow to three billion by this year.”

I was interested to find out about where these platforms lie in the popularity race and who uses them. First things first: The categorisation of internet users according to Kasasa is as follows: Baby Boomers (born between 1946 and 1964), Generation X (1965-1980), Generation Y/Millennials (1981-1996) and Generation Z (1997-2015).

Created in 2004, Facebook started as a social networking service for university students; today it is rare to find an internet user who does not have a Facebook account, and according to Facebook Investor Relations, Facebook has 2.8 billion users as of December 2020 and is by far the most popular application compared to Instagram and Snapchat. Facebook is used most by Baby Boomers (93%), with Generation X a close second (88%) and Millennials (87%), as per The Manifest 2018 Consumer App Survey. As one of the first applications to come out, it has wider appeal among older age groups and users who may be less technologically savvy.

The second giant is YouTube. According to YouTube Demographics, outside of China, 77% Gen Zers, 75% of Millennials, 61% Gen Xers, and 44% Baby Boomers visit the site daily. YouTube meets most users’ needs for information, exercise, tutorials, shows and entertainment, making it popular among all generations.

Instagram, which is primarily a photo sharing app is most popular with Millennials and Generation Z. According to Statista, 33% of its users are aged 25 to 34 followed by 18 to 24 year olds at 29.8%.

Research also shows that Snapchat and TikTok are more popular among Millennials and Gen Z users as they are more inclined to new apps and are drawn towards apps that involve visual content: (videos and pictures and which do not) involve a lot readable content.

Applications such as WhatsApp that allow easy and free messaging for users are used across the board because of their ease in communication and forming chat. According to the Global Web Index, Millennials are the most frequent users of WhatsApp, with 54% using the app on a daily basis; followed by 51% of Generation Z users 48% of Generation X users and 36% of Baby Boomers.

However, social media applications as a global phenomenon have managed to reach users of all generations recreating and impacting socialisation, consumption of entertainment, and the way in which business and trade is conducted.

Sana Ahmad Safdar is a graduate in Communication, Culture and Information Technology and a freelance writer.